National Science Education Standards
Life Science Content Standard C: As a result of their activities
in grades 5-8, all students should develop understanding of
structure and function in living systems. Principles that
underlie this standard include structure and functions of
cells, tissues, organs, systems for movement, control, and
coordination. A behavioral response requires coordination
and communication at many levels, including cells, organ systems,
and whole organisms. (pp. 155-157).
By the end of 5th grade, students should know that the brain
gets signals from all parts of the body telling what is going
on there. The brain also sends signals to parts of the body
to influence what they do. (p. 136)
Human Identity Grades 6-8: By the end of the 8th grade, students
should know that human beings have body systems for providing
coordination of body systems. (p. 129) "Students can
now develop more sophisticated understandings of how organs
and organ systems work together." This includes the carrying
of messages by nerves to help the organism respond to its
environment. "Asking 'What if?' questions such as 'What
might happen if some other parts weren't there or weren't
working?' can stimulate students to reflect on connections
among organs." (p. 137) By the end of the 8th grade,
students should know that interactions among the senses, nerves,
and brain make possible the learning that enables human beings
to cope with changes in their environment.
National Science Teachers Association Scope Sequence
"At the 6-8 grade level, the curriculum should emphasize
the human organism." (p. 48) Students should explore
the different systems.
Nebraska Science Standards
"Grades 5-8 At the middle school level, students expand
their scientific inquiry skills through knowledge, observations,
ideas, and questions. Middle school students will begin to
recognize the relationships between explanation and evidence.
They understand that background knowledge and theories guide
the design of investigations, the types of observations made,
and the interpretation of data. Student investigations will
shape and modify students' background knowledge. (p. 24)
"8.1 Unifying Concepts and Processes
"8.1.1 By the end of eighth grade, students will develop
an understanding of systems, order, and organization.
- Recognize and describe integral parts and functions of
- Analyze and predict the interactions within a system and
- Create and use classification schemes.
- "Interpret cause and effect relationships within
and between systems."
"8.4 Life Science
8.4.1 By the end of eighth grade, students will develop an
understanding of the structure and function in living systems.
- Investigate and describe the levels of organizations:
cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, whole organisms,
- Investigate and describe the specialized function performed
by specialized cells, such as muscular and skeletal, in
- Investigate and describe the internal human body systems.
- Investigate and explain how disease affects the structure
and/or function of an organism."
- Construct a neuron and learn that within the neuron there
are different organelles and with specific functions
- Complete a simple neuronal circuit which concretely demonstrates
how neurons are wired in a functional unit
- Participate in a learning module to reiterate the key
points and apply what they have just learned
- Neurons are the structural building blocks of the nervous
- Through specialized processes, neurons are "hard-wired"
to each other to form functional circuits
- In these circuits neurons communicate with each other
through electrical and chemical signaling
Science Process Skills
- Making Connections